Immigrant Minority Health

Sep 14, 2017 in Medicine

This study shows a disproportionately amount of minorities are affected by diabetes mellitus in the medical community. This study reveals statistic facts as well as documented facts. Research has consistently documented that on almost any measure, minorities have poorer health than do other groups. Not many minorities report to their primary care physician for some signs and symptoms due to diabetes mellitus. The United States population has become increasingly diverse, making it a reliable source of information on the reports of this disease. This research will show facts as to why immigrant minorities have disparities among minorities. Social, economic, and environmental factors are research to find the disparities of this deadly disease. This study examines the effects it has on three ethnic groups: Arabs, Chaldean, and Blacks. Using a cross-sectional and a convenience sample, the study estimated the prevalence of self-reported diabetes for Whites. Self- reporting is by great extent experienced in many minority-dwelled communities. Diabetes is more prevalent in the black population than in white population followed by an increase in complication. Figures show why a higher mortality rate among black, specifically black women, is more seriously affected (International Association for the Study of Obesity, 1992). Obesity means an excess amount of body fat, how much is still a debate. Obesity is thought to be the primary cause of type two diabetes in people predisposed to the disease. Studies show increases in type 2 diabetes in the last 50 years. This study took place in the southeast region of Michigan ranging from 18 years and older. The study was performed in the year 2005 for a period of three months through the Wayne State University.

Studies show that diabetes mellitus has many underlying side effects or diseases related to being obese, like coronary disease (CHF); a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to the body's other organs. Peripheral vascular disease twisted, enlarged veins that mostly affects the lower body because of pressuring the veins. A blood clot blockage, pulmonary arteries becoming a block, a part of the branch of arteries block by fat and from a decrease in respiration amniotic fluids and clumped cells has an effect on breathing. The list is large showing the results of obesity. Coronary heart disease is one of the more prevalent risk factors. Many are misdiagnosed of not having diabetes because whites are of a European origin making the whites a reference base group for other ethnic groups in this research. In the low self-reported community, one must know the signs and symptoms to first properly report it to the primary care physician. In undertaking the research, we were uncertain since we were aware that some people would not report having diabetes symptoms. All participants were volunteers and were asked to take place in a survey that involved disparities in self-reported diabetes mellitus among Arab, Chaldean, and Black Americans in southeast Michigan. Members of the Wayne State University took the study from a survey of individuals residing in Communities in Michigan (Healthy Living Institute, 1989).

Methods

By selecting the three groups for the study, an objective overview on the non-reports of diabetes mellitus in minority groups was accomplished. By showing risk factors for various chronic conditions among individuals attending the Arab American & Chaldean Council (ACC), prevention and intervention programs for minority communities were implemented. The study did not give any age specifics that were surveyed, and all participants were from southeast Michigan. We randomly selected immigrants from three counties that are 18 or older. They were selected surveys used from the 2005 health assessment survey with two objectives. The material used in this research was surveys handed out and data collected from the health assessment survey. Participants from what was gathered were of male origin, but there may be women that were in involved in this research. The research included statistics for a quantitative study showing how many from each group were self-reported. Also, empirical research was done by indirect observance by collecting data from the individual groups. All methods used including participants, data collection, measures and analysis measured the same. All information taken by the surveyors were properly equipped for this research and all material was labeled with codes for security against any fraudulent results. The study period was from August 26, 2005 to October 25, 2005 and was approved by an ethics review committee (Immigrants Minority Health Journal 2007).

Questionnaire Development

The average age group for the study was between 18years and older adults. This helped us to conduct a standardized health survey since the study included demographic, socioeconomics, health status and behavior. The study included roughly over 3500 individuals. The study included height and weight, which the staff calculated body mass index. The research was of independent variables age groups the Arab America & Chaldean Council (ACC).The survey consisted of questionnaires to get information on people in several zip code areas. The Counties involved were Macomb County, Oakland County, and Wayne County in southeast Michigan. All participants were given the option to mail in the questionnaire after completion. With the option to mail in the survey, it could help place the status of Arabs and Chaldeans health.

Sampling

The population that was used in this research study was Arabs, Chaldeans, and black American. The comparable were White with some mixed Hispanics. The research was performed in a method in which surveys were handed out in three Counties. A strong belief in the degree in which the research was done shows a great outcome besides the volunteer method approach. Each sample was labeled with a code number to address duplication in the results. Included was several demographic age, sex, marital status, language, educational, socioeconomic status, health background, working or unemployed status, earning status, doctors visit, chronic known illness, heart condition, mental issues, and behavior variables such as exercise, transportation, smoking. Things used to compare the data retrieved were compared to last year statistics and a small margin was noted between the two studies.

Procedure

Broadcasting was on local radio, television, and in newspapers. Public locations like churches were visited to participate in the self- administered survey. Each community that participated was given information about the study that was going to take place in their community. A special code was assign to each survey to assure that no survey would be duplicated; this would be from the results of multiple office visits. All of the research was limited to the three minority groups including the Whites and the Hispanics. The Whites joined the category on the reason of having a small sample outcome. After the research was done, the outcome for the study was self-reported diabetes collected with the questions. The questionnaire it pertain provided questions like. Have you been diagnosed by your doctor with diabetes? Responses were yes versus no. The main independent variable was ethnicity, determined by asking, g, which ethnicity are you? Responses for these analyses were Chaldean, Arab, Black, or White (Diabetes Spectrum, 2001)).

Results

The research consisted of 3,543 individuals interviewed. Of the three minorities the Chaldeans

had the lowest self-report. Blacks reportedly had the highest, and later women were found to have been compared to the male counterpart of having lower self-reported diabetes compared to males. There were three table involved table one showed descriptive characteristic table two represented the prevalence of self-reported diabetes by race for each. Table three showed individuals interviewed. Table one displayed age, sex, marital status language social economic, education, physician visits in the number of years and last visited. Chronic illness, body mass index was also reported also health behavior (National Center for Health Statistics, 2002). On table two it consisted of basically the same as table one it also had p-value, dietary intake per day that pertain vegetables. Table three listed the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios. These are some of the statistical concepts information from the Chaldeans showed that they were less to grade their health status. The research displayed the Chaldeans had a higher hypertension and high cholesterol compared to Arabs, Blacks and Whites. The heart disease was most prevalent among Arabs and whites had a higher depression rate. Blacks reported having higher obesity rate. Diabetes is a leading side effect of being obese. Less education among the Chaldeans increased the chance to having diabetes compared to any of the ethnic groups with at least a diploma. To add to the chance of having diabetes mellitus was having an income $10,000 or less among Arabs, and Chaldeans compared to their counterparts (American Society for Bariatric Surgery, 2005). The prevalence of self-reported diabetes increased with age and Chaldeans with health insurance were more likely to have diabetes compared to their counterparts. Chaldeans were found to have higher rates in many other research studies. In the table that consisted of unadjusted and adjusted values, Blacks were less likely to report self-diabetes as compared to the Whites. There was no reason that found to explain why there was low self-reports diabetes in Blacks being that if this disease is so prevalent in the black race there should be no reason why this disease be kept a secret. More education is needed and more access to public health to teach every ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic background. The results only showed statistics, no remedies on how to combat this disease were included in the research. The negative response from non-revealing of a health condition to no reporting at all was not included, in this study. This could add to one ethnic having such higher cases of diabetes compared to their counterparts. Much of the tables from this research provide enough data to confirm its results.

Discussion

Our %uFB01ndings were comparable to the 2004 Michigan Behavior Risk Factor Survey. The number were slightly higher overall than our study. In the study finding that having health insurance showed having a higher level of diabetes obesity in relation to race varies along all racial lines, sex and age has a big influence. American women are found to be more obese than the American male population. The prevalence of overweight seems it has increased over the decade the increase between black and white women increases with each decade from 20to 65 years of age. Why we discuss the obesity in America because it is a high contributor of people with diabetes not all diabetics are overweight. So why and what is the leading reason, in the research each table gives good reliable research data to draw a conclusion to the higher. We could look at each ethnic group over a period. The Arab Gulf countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates have undergone a rapid change in their socio-economic situation, food consumption patterns, and lifestyle and health status during the past four decades (Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity, 2007). From wars going on in the Middle East the goal here was to promote healthy nutritional and healthier life style (International Association for the Study of Obesity, 2000). Fruits and vegetable are a part of a daily diet to maintain a healthy body. If you ever diagnosed with diabetes nutrition will be one of your greatest tools to help maintain a healthier life style and help combat the other side effects that can come along with being diagnosed with diabetes. If you never tried eating healthier food, it will be difficult to start after being diagnose having diabetes. Eating more starches, five fruits and vegetables every day. Sugars and sweets should be eaten in moderation no matter what ethnic background a good nutritional diet will certainly pay off in the long run. Blacks American diets have a high intake are preference born since cultural influences and necessity (American Public Health Association, 1999). Therefore, any efforts to get them to eat other types of healthier foods are met with resistance and are seen as trying to eradicate "Black" culture as we know it but this stereotype cast over the loss of a culture. What effects do other cultures have on soul food diets it is necessary to look at the history of Black Americans in the United States? Typical cuisine called soul food has resulted in various health problems for African-Americans. Soul food typically involves fried foods and lots of fatty meats prepared with rich gravies interaction with slavery.

Conclusion

The results of this research ends pretty well knowing that three communities in southeast

Michigan had the opportunity to participate in a research that gave vital information about different life style from different cultures. All are susceptible to the disease called diabetes mellitus the research help bring forth the information about self-reported diabetes mellitus and why some of the ethnics groups have a higher cases of diabetes mellitus. The different between the Michigan Behavior Risk Factor Survey the research showed was higher in females and lower in Health Assessment Survey (Stavans, 2010). The outcome of this research and all of the participants greatly surprised the expectation or the prediction. But more people could have taken the survey within each group to comparing all within the group all ethnics group have a high, middle, and lower class. From this a far more better conclusion may have shown different results if all three categories were selected not just a certain amount, but if all that were listed from each ethnic group including socioeconomic status then all should have been included from each ethnic group. The study did not report the changes if any were made to see a result or decrease in the self-report of diabetes mellitus in minorities in America. A challenge in changing the way Americans eat can help improve future research. Diets play a large factor in American diet if one unhealthy food could be removed the intake of most American a large portion of the country would see a significant change (American Diabetes Association, 1952). There is a large food industry in the United States which plays a great role on how well we eat and want to eat. Subconsciously we all know that when eating a poor diet and poor food choices we expose our bodies to great harm and disease risks. A small change in the foods we eat is like medicine to our body. No drug can ever take the place of a proper diet as long as we feed the body with good nutritional healthy foods a lot of the diseases that are running so rampant in the old as well the young generation could be eliminated. But as long as there are fast food restaurants and no early education teach on how much this fast food harm the body after eating on regular basis. Human health in this country will continue to have increase in diabetes mellitus. No matter what type of study, statistically performed research will ever be the same if no change in diets are made from American across the United States. The research that scientist do is very helpful in providing vital information. Doctors know what is working and what needs to be modified. Hospitals perform research every day when a patient enters the emergency room and some patients get a full work up on their overall health condition.

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